例句：People the world over have profited enormously(极大地)from the co-operation across national borders(边界)，in terms of both efficiency and flexibility ( the range of choices).
详解：近义句型:sth. is in the best interest of someone
2、A is an indispensable /integral part of B A是B不可缺少的一部分
例句：The Internet has become an indispensable part of modern life as it profoundly(深刻地) influences the way we live, work, co-operate and compete.
详解：近义句型:There is no substitute(替代物)for
3、is the cornerstone of…是……的基石
例句：In most modern countries，the family unit is still the cornerstone cf society.
详解：近义句型:is the bedrock of../is fundamental to..
4、enable sb. to do sth让某人可以去做……
例句：Computerisation and digitisation(数码化)enable factories to cut their production costs substantially(大幅度地).
详解：近义句型:equip sb with the ability to do sth
5、get accustomed to sth.适应……
例句：Due to the different cultural backgrounds, some international businesspeople have a hard time getting accustomed to the local way of marketing.
详解：近义句型:get used to / adapt to / adjust to
6、can utilise sth可以使用……=can use
例句：The current(现在的，目前的)problem for the government is how best to utilise resources it has now rather than how to increase its resources.
详解：近义句型:make use of sth/exploit sth
反义句型:squander ( money / time / opportunities / chances)浪费某事物
7、 strike a balance between A and B在A和B之间保持一种平衡
例句：Due to the increasing stress and the rising demand for their time at work, most married adults need learn to strike a balance between their work and their family
详解：近义句型 maintain a balance between.and
反义句型 lose/upset/disturb the balance between .and
8、assume / shoulder the responsibility for…承担起……的责任
例句：Educators should assume the responsibility for ensuring that their students do not go astray(误入歧途)academically, psychologically or socially.
详解：反义句型:shirk responsibility / duty逃避责任
go astray是教育话题的常用句型，类似的句型还有be misguided(受到误导)
9、sth. has been consolidating its status as the某事物在不断加固它作为··…的地位
例句：English has been consolidating its status as the dominant(占统治地位的)
language in the world，which has left many languages endangered.
详解：反义句型:lose its status as the.失去作为……的地位
例句：Those who have spent some time traveling to other places have a broader view oflife and better personal resources to draw on(剑桥例句)
11、get a clear perspective of对……产生更清晰的认识
例句：That is the best way for students to get a clear perspective of what they are
hoping to do with their lives and why(剑桥例句).
详解：反义句型:be ignorant about..关于……很无知
12、afford people a sense of belonging/a sense of fulfilment(BrE)/a sense of achievement/ a sense of security /job satisfactio。给人们提供归属感/成就感/安全感/工作满意度
例句：The sense satisfaction of belonging to a team or a working community also contributes to job because colleagues help each other to enjoy their working lives。
详解：近义句型:reward people emotionally给人们情感上的回报
反义句型:make people feel disoriented / frustrated让人失去方向感/另人沮丧
例句：The role of a school is not just to provide students with opportunities to acquire knowledge, but also to give students chances to learn about values(价值观)and to make reasoned choices.
关的地道英文表达还有hone one's ability to do sth.(锻炼某人做某事的能力)，
mould one's character(塑造某人的个陛)等
14、put… into practice把……投入实践
例句：Putting new ideas into practice is more difficult than having them.
详解：近义句型:put… to the test让……经受考验
15、strengthen family ties增进亲情
例句：Instead of strengthening family ties, modern technology seems to have prevented people from keeping in touch with their family far away from them by keeping them constantly(持续地)busy.
详解：近义句型:reinforce family ties/ reinforce family bonds
16、be interrelated and interdependent相互联系，相互依赖的
例句：Nations are increasingly interrelated and interdependent in this age of and cultural globalisation，which means no matter how far away geographically, no country is really isolated(孤立的).
详解：反义句型:be alienated from../be separated from..被与……疏远
1、… is accompanied by…某种好的现象伴随着某种坏的现象
例句：The staggering人的)advancement of technology is accompanied by severe
pollution of the ecosystem.
详解：近义句型is attended by
对比:is prior to..先于……发生
2、sth. is unwarranted/ unjustified某种做法很不合理
例句：The amount of money super stars can earn in a short time cannot possibly be justified by the amount of work they do.(剑桥例句)
详解：反义句型:sth. With is justified / justifiable某种做法是站得住脚的
例句：A host of(大量的)African countries are being afflicted with chronic(长期的)
poverty and lasting war.
详解：近义句型:suffer from / be plagued with
反义句型:be free from 免于遭受
4、deprive someone of sth.剥夺某人的(自由、权力或者某种生活方式)
例句：Modern cities deprive city-dwellers(城市居民)of fresh air and the comfortable pace of life.
详解：近义句型:violate one's rights /infringe on one's rights侵犯某人的权利
5、sth. impels sb. to..促使某人去……
例句：It is the increasing peer pressure(同辈间的压力)that impels many youngsters to start smoking or drinking at an early age.
详解：请注意上面例句中强调句It is… that…的使用
近义句型:prompt sb. to..
6、A has rendered A十B形容词或者名词A让B变成某种(让人担心的状态)
例句：The upgrade in the IT industry has rendered millions of old computers obsolete(过时的).
sth. useless / unprotected(受不到任何保护的)/ pointless(没有意义的)
7、 sth. is the root cause of…某事是……的根源
例句：The population explosion is the root cause of water scarcity(短缺)
详解：反义句型:On the surface，….is caused by…表面上，某事是由··…导致的
8、be confronted with sth.面对(某种负面的事物)
例句：We will be confronted with this question at some point, no matter how unpleasant it can be.
外媒体就写到:Tiger Woods is now confronted with trouble created by himself一all the news about his multiple affairs.
9、be inundated with sth.充斥着……
例句：International trade has rendered many markets in developing countries inundated with foreign products that they do not really need.
详解：近义句型:be saturated with sth
反义句型:lack sth./be deficient in sth.缺乏··…
10、If… , sth. will ensue如果…..(某种不好的结果)将产生
例句：If parents neglect(忽视) their offspring，lack of discipline(纪律)and respect will ensue
详解：近义句型:If..，sth. will arise(注意这里不是rise)
11、distract sb. from…分散某人的注意力
例句：There are educational video games that，instead of distracting students from their classes，actually make students more academically-motivated.
详解：反义句型:make sb. concentrate on.·
12、be addicted to sth/be preoccupied with sth对……上瘾
例句：At the extreme(在极端情况下)，children may even become addicted to
computers as much as some of them become dependent on drugs.
13、copy sth. mechanically/apply sth. indiscriminately对……机械照搬
例句：It is highly disturbing(困扰人的)that many architects today are copying
traditional architectural styles mechanically in their building designs.
详解：反义句型:apply sth. creatively(有创造性地使用··…)
14、increase the government expenditure增加政府支出
例句：The massive layoffs(大规模的裁员)will markedly(显著地)increase the
government expenditure in training the citizens who have lost their jobs and yet
do not have the skills required by the new jobs.
详解：近义句型:increase the government spending
反义句型:reduce the government expenditure
比较:optimise the distribution of government financial resources优化政府 财政资源配置
15、run contrary to (principles / faith/ theories/ evidence)与(原则/信仰/理论/证
例句：Their suggestion runs contrary to the overwhelming evidence that technology boosts human efficiency.
详解：近义词组 is the exact opposite of
反义词组 is consistent with 与……相一致
16、erode the national identity / national pride侵蚀一个国家的文化特性/民族自豪感
例句：The indiscriminate worship(盲目崇拜)of the traditional culture is seriously
eroding the national identity of the young country.
详解：反义句型:preserve the national identity / boost national pride
17、at the expense of….以……为代价
例句：The infrastructure(基础设施)should not be upgraded at the expense of
详解：近义句型:at the cost of…./compromise(妥协)…/sacrifice(牺牲)…
比较:put a strain on sth严重消耗某种资源
18、It is wrong to equate… with….把，·…等同于··…是错误的
例句：It is wrong to equate happiness with making more money and living in a spacious house.(剑桥例句)
详解：近义句型:It is erroneous to regard… as..把……视为……是错误的
1、support / oppose… on the grounds that..以··…为理由去支持或者反对某事
例句：Some people continue to oppose animal experiments on the grounds that they are inhumane(不人道的)
详解：近义句型:support / oppose … on the basis of
2、abide by the rules / law / regulations(规则/法律/规定等)
例句:To prevent children from going astray, parents should help their children to
learn to respect others and to abide by the rules.
详解:近义句型: comply with / conform to the rules
反义句型: break / violate the rules
3、A prevail over (or outweigh / outbalance ) B A大于B
例句：The advantages of stiffer (更严厉的)punishment for driving offenders prevail over its disadvantages.
反义句型:pale in comparison with…地道英文中极为常用的一个短语，意思是“与…相比微不足道”
4、A create (or bring about/ generate/ cause/ breed/ engender/ spawn/induce) B A产生B这个结果
例句:Technological innovations (创新) have brought about fundamental changes to various political，economic and cultural arenas (领域) .
详解:其中create所跟的宾语选择较广; bring about一般指大规模地产生某种结果;
employment opportunities (就业机会) ;cause, breed与engender的后面跟负面结
果较为常见，比如cause pain/anxiety, breed conflict(冲突)，engender
5、A is a key determinant of B A是B的决定因素
例句: In an individual's career, tenacity (毅力) is a key determinant of success.
详解:类似的意思也可以用动词形式A determines B表达，来实现句型多样化
6、are , by nature ,+形容词 天生就……
例句: Children are，by nature，underdeveloped，morally, emotionally as well
详解:这个句型的好处是使用了句中短语，能让枯燥的长句子变得更有亲和力。近义句型:are naturally + 形容词
7、it is standard practice for someone to do sth. 某人通常会怎样做某事
例句: At present, it is not standard practice for scientists to release (发布) their
data or research models, which may lead to research that is detrimental (有害的) to human beings.
详解:近义句型:It is not uncommon for someone to do sth.注意这是双重否定，意思
8、A is best characterised by… A最重要的特质是……
例句:Excellent journalists are best characterised by self-discipline(自制力)，
Determination (决心) and insights (洞察力) .
详解:近义句型:The most important distinguishing feature of… is…
9、Given the choice,… 如果可以选择的话，……
例句:Given the choice, most adults would find human friends preferable to pets.
详解:请注意Given the choice后面的主语一般是人或者机构，be preferable to ..是一个固定短语，比……更值得拥有的意思，preferable的前面通常不必加more
10、someone would be well-advised to do sth. (= should) 某人应该做某事
例句:Parents would be well-advised to spend more time with their offspring.
there seems to be plenty of research findings to confirm this看起来有足够的研究
11、…，and there seems to be plenty of research findings to confirm this 看起来有足够的研究证明这个观点
例句: Teaching students in groups helps them to grow into social，responsible
individuals，and there seems to be plenty of research findings to confirm this. (剑桥例句)
详解:近义句型:Research has provided hard(站得住脚的)evidence to confirm that/
From our own experience，we can find plenty of evidence to support the view
反义句型:There is little evidence to confirm that…
12、in all likelihood 很可能
例句: In all likelihood，these decisions would be made by government officials who tend to have wrong understanding of the problems.
详解:使用这个句型的好处是:(1)让论证听起来不至于过分地绝对，毕竟雅思议论文不是科学研究报告，所以即使剑4–剑7中的剑桥考官范文里也经常出现perhaps, may, possibly, probably, in some cases这类用来适当弱化语气的词;(2)在句首或者句中引入这个小短语后让长句子显得更为灵活多样。
13、his trend is not restricted to… 这个现象并不仅限于……
例句:This trend is not restricted to wealthy students who have the money to do this, but is also evident (明显的) among poorer students.
详解:反义句型..is limited / confined to…某现象仅限于……
14、tend to…多半……(这是在雅思写作和口语里代替被使用过滥的most of的好句型)
例句:(1 ) Youngsters tend to be more impulsive (冲动的) and more likely to go astray (误入歧途) socially. (2)These are electronic games that tend to be very intense and rather violent (剑桥例句).
详解:近义句型: are likely to ../ are inclined to../ have the tendency to/ and… is
no exception (也不是例外)
例句: Success of such efforts hinges on contribution from the authorities.
详解:这个词组在意思上接近depend on / reply on，但在语气上更坚决，带有.“舍我其谁”的排它性
16、A reflect B体现，反映
例句: Feelings about one's job must reflect how an individual feels about his or her life as a whole. (剑7例句)
详解:近义句型: A is indicative of B
反义句型: A is irrelevant to B A与B完全无关
17、The proportion of… is very high…… 的比例非常高。
例句:The proportion of their lives spent doing such jobs is very high. (剑7例句)
详解:近似的意思在同一篇文章中也可以用The majority of…二来替换，以实现句式多样化
18、in this respect / regard 在这方面
例句:Positive feedback from superiors (主管) is very important in this respect.(剑7例句)
详解:这个词组可以用来替换国内考生一直使用过多的in this aspect
19、is a frequent topic of discussion 是一再引起辩论的话题
例句:The comparative importance of natural talent and training is a frequent topic of discussion.(剑7例句)
详解:近义句型: is a much–debated issue
1、give priority to sth. 把……放在优先位置
例句:The government should give priority to the optimization (优化) of its financial resources.
详解:近义句型: Of crucial importance to someone is sth.请注意这是一个倒装句型，可以用来提高文章的句式多样
2、dedicate money / time / energy to..把(金钱/时间/精力等)花在……上
例句:The government should dedicate itself to protecting the rights of the old, the sick and the homeless.
详解:近义句型: commit … to
3、be vulnerable to容易成为……的受害者
例句:Without proper parental guidance, children would be vulnerable to the violent or pornographic content (内容) of those TV shows.
详解:近义句型:be likely to fall prey to
反义句型:be immune to…免于遭受……的伤害
4、sth. should be condemned rather than condoned某事应该被谴责而不是被宽恕
例句:Indiscriminate (盲目的) copying of traditional architectural style today should be condemned rather than condoned.
详解:反义句型: let… go unchecked对(某种坏行为)放任不管
5、it is imperative/ essential that…(或者sth. is of paramount/ overriding importance ) 至关重要
例句:To the newly-arrived immigrants, it is imperative that they adapt to the local culture promptly (及时的).
详解:反义句型:sth.is no longer a necessity 某事已经不再必要
例句:Any child can be taught particular skills, but to be really good in areas such as music, art or sport, then some natural talent is required. (剑7例句)
详解:近义句型:sth. necessitates/calls for
7、distinguish between A and B 区分A和B
例句:Many youngsters lack the capacity (能力) to distinguish between right and
详解:近义句型: differentiate A from B
8、take…into account 把……纳入考虑
例句:The circumstances of an individual crime, and the motivation for committing it, should always be taken into account when deciding on the punishment. (剑7例句)
详解:近义句型: take… into consideration
反义句型: overlook sth. 忽视某事
9、is an important element of… 是…的重要因素
例句: Job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing. (剑7例句)
详解:近义句型: play a valuable role in…
10、are not mutually exclusive (两者) 并不相互排斥
例句:Good training and natural talent are not mutually exclusive. (剑7例句)
详解:反义句型:are incompatible with each other 相互排斥